Ernest H. Galloway: Paducah, Kentucky Stoneware Face Jug Maker

Ernest H. Galloway / Paducah, Kentucky Face Jug

From both a research and collecting perspective, the last two decades have seen an incredible amount of interest focused on the wildest folk art creations of the American stoneware potters: face jugs, snake jugs, pig flasks, and other related forms. Often bursting with life and displaying a very high level of skill, these objects exude the personality of the potter himself in every component and fun detail.

In particular, I can think of no two schools of American ceramic production that have captivated museums, collectors and researchers more than those spearheaded by the Kirkpatrick Brothers of Anna Pottery in Illinois and the alkaline-glazed stoneware producers of Edgefield District, South Carolina. The former were the preeminent makers of American pig bottles and snake jugs; the latter, the most influential producers of face vessels. Rarely are these two schools of pottery production mentioned in the same breath, let alone studied as a cohesive whole. But there was an almost psychedelic spirit that overtook the American stoneware craft as the nineteenth century began to move toward its close, with ideas and styles being shared amongst all of the potters who allowed themselves to be captivated by it.

An Edgefield face jug beside an Anna Pottery snake jug. These objects, both sold at our auction in recent years, hold the world auction records for an American face jug and a piece of Anna Pottery, at $100,300 and $141,600, respectively.

It is in this context that we can discuss an exceptional example of American stoneware folk art that we’ll be selling as part of our Fall 2020 auction of American stoneware & redware pottery: an elaborate Albany-glazed face jug made in the early 20th century by a young potter named Ernest H. Galloway in Paducah, Kentucky. Like, say, the well-known John Dollings in Muskingum County, Ohio, Galloway was a potter working in the shadow of Anna Pottery who, unlike the Kirkpatricks in Anna, enthusiastically embraced the face jug form. Born July 25, 1878 in Paducah, he and his brother, John, appear in that town’s 1900 census as potters. Their father was a railroad engineer, and indeed Ernest himself would take up the railroading profession, as well–his obituary calls him “a former Illinois Central fireman.” This has bearing on the pottery influencing Galloway in his own artistic life: Anna, Illinois, was not only about 45 miles as the crow flies from Paducah, but its own stop on the Illinois Central. Indeed, Anna pig flasks are frequently inscribed with railroad maps of which the Illinois Central was the primary line.

1892 map of the Illinois Central Railroad.

Also near Paducah was the heavily Anna-influenced pottery center of Metropolis, Illinois. Galloway was actually married in Metropolis to a local girl, their 1903 marriage record noting his occupation as “Potter.”

1903 marriage record for Ernest H. Galloway and Murtie Taylor in Metropolis.

The 1910 census shows Galloway living in Paducah with his wife and two young children, his occupation given as “Jug Maker.” (Between the 1900 and 1910 censuses, he is also listed in Paducah city directories between 1900 and 1910. Some note his work on the railroad, but the 1904, 1908 and 1910 directories all reference his trade as a potter, the 1908 and 1910 ones specifically referring to him as a “jiggerman” at the Paducah Pottery Company. This long-lived manufactory run by pottery magnate J.A. Bauer was located at the corner of 7th and Trimble Streets.)

1901 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map detail of the Paducah Pottery Co.

Ernest H. Galloway died young. On December 12, 1910, at only 32 years of age, his life was cut short by what the local death records call “heart disease.” Looking at his jug (which is signed on the bottom, “E. Galloway. Paducah. Ky.”), it is clear that Galloway had a considerable amount of skill. This is the only signed example of his we’ve seen, but there are a very few others attributed to him, based in part on one very distinctive feature: the pronounced part in the middle of the hair. A very unusual feature, we might ask ourselves why Galloway went out of his way to add this touch to multiple examples. In looking at family genealogies and photos of Galloway, we have our answer:

Ernest Harvey Galloway, modelling the distinctive hairstyle that informed his ceramic work.

I have never seen another face vessel for which we have such a clear inspiration for one of its decorative elements. There has been much written, discussed and conjectured over the last many years on the origin of American face jugs, what their exact intended use was, what informed the so-called “grotesque” faces you see on many of them, and so on. This is an important new discovery, to see the potter in this case actually caricaturizing himself, delighting in giving his vessel a prominent attribute of his own.



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Signature of Ernest Galloway on the bottom of the jug.

The Arkansas Traveler: Important New Information about the Stoneware Log Cabin Scene in our 10/29/2011 Auction

The Arkansas Traveler (Currier & Ives version), upon which Lot 23 (stoneware log cabin scene) in our October 29, 2011 was based.
We just wanted to share some important new information about Lot 23 in Saturday’s auction, the stoneware log cabin scene attributed to Anna Pottery. An expert on this subject emailed us yesterday to draw our attention to “The Arkansas Traveler,” an important painting and song uponwhich Lot 23 was based.

“The Arkansas Traveler” was painted by Arkansas artist Edward Payson Washbourne, who completed it circa 1856. It was rendered from a popular fiddle song written by Colonel Sandford C. Faulkner, probably based on an actual conversation he had with a country settler in 1840–and it plays off of an encounter between the sophisticated “Traveler” and the country “Squatter.” Popular prints were created from Washbourne’s original, including a version by Currier & Ives in 1870. The man on horseback, whom we had speculated may be a Union soldier, is Colonel Faulkner, who served in the Confederate army, including in command of the Little Rock Arsenal.

The stoneware version of The Arkansas Traveler, probably by the Kirkpatrick Brothers of Anna Pottery in Anna, Illinois.
“The Arkansas Traveler” became a ubiquitous pop culture image, particularly in reference to the State of Arkansas, where it became the state song from 1949 to 1963; it is now the state historical song. The song has been used in numerous cartoons and an Academy Award-winning Laurel & Hardy film. The Arkansas Travelers play Double-A baseball in Little Rock.

A version of Washbourne’s painting appeared at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, and the kind person who emailed us speculates that the stoneware version may have been made around that time, and based on Currier & Ives’ print.

To read more about “The Arkansas Traveler,” you can visit http://www.arkansas-traveler.org/.

The listing for the stoneware version our 10/29 auction is available here: http://www.crockerfarm.com/stoneware-auction/2011-10-29/lot-23/Extremely-Rare-and-Important-Stoneware-Log-Cabin-Group-probably-Anna-Pottery/

It is remarkable to view what is probably the Kirkpatrick Brothers’ stoneware take on this folk story, and we thought you might be interested to know where this image came from.



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The Anna Pottery School: Texas Stoneware Snake Jug by John L. Stone

Texas stoneware temperance snake jug by John L. Stone.

Texas stoneware temperance snake jug by John L. Stone.

The Texas stoneware snake jug we will be selling on January 30 was one of the highlights of Kelly Young’s prominent collection of antique American utilitarian ceramics. We featured a picture of Mr. Young holding the jug on the title page of our current catalog (see below). The jug is also one of the most monumental examples of nineteenth century American folk art we have ever handled. A large snake forms the handle of the jug. His head protrudes from the other side of the jug top, biting the head of a man in a bizarre predicament–his lower half hanging out the side of the vessel. Another snake, a centipede, and a lizard also hug the surface of the jug. Several inscriptions highlight the scene. The two most prominent, as if written on plaques, are the maker’s inscription and the name of the pottery where the jug was made: “MADE & PRESENTED TO THE Fire Brick & Tile Company By J.L. STONE”  and “J.P. Johnson & J.W. Dillon / MANUFACTURERS/ OF / ALL KINDS OF / STONEWARE / Kosse Texas.” (Note that we cataloged the jug as reading “J.F. Johnson,” but after subsequent research and study, it reads, “J.P.”)

Kelly Young with one his collection's highlights.

Kelly Young with one his collection's highlights.

Surrounding the unfortunate man’s body are the words “First Attempt,” topped by the phrase, “Go in lemmons (sic) and come out squeezed.” Words beneath the man’s head read, “The Result.” To the right of the handle, what appears to be a brick is incised “Timse’s Best,” probably referring to a worker at the brick company.

While trying to do further research and put this remarkable jug into better context, I noticed that another example of Stone’s work was acquired by the Bayou Bend Collection of the Houston Museum of Fine Arts in 2003. A large stoneware spaniel, measuring 11″ tall, was made in a style rarely seen in American stoneware. Instead, it was made in a manner most associated with redware figures of the time period–a dog on base, standing in the front, seated at the back, incised to create fur on the body and the ears. This Midwestern pottery dog that straddles the line somewhere between redware and stoneware resembles the Stone spaniel in its body shape, tooled fur to body and ears, and smooth face and legs. Stone’s dog differs, however, in its clear spaniel breed, its size, a large base (reminiscent of that seen on some molded King Charles spaniel figures made out of various types of pottery in the nineteenth century), and its clear stoneware clay body. No slip decoration–such as cobalt or manganese–decorates the dog. Prominently incised on the front of the base are the initials “J. L. S.,” referring to John L. Stone.

Stone’s snake jug is most closely related to very similar vessels made by the famous brothers, Wallace and Cornwall Kirkpatrick, at Anna Pottery in Anna, Union County, Illinois–so closely related, in fact, that part of my motivation in researching Stone was to try to tie him to that prolific duo (or at least figure out why something made in what could be called the “Anna Pottery school” was produced in Texas).

MADE & PRESENTED TO THE Fire Brick & Tile Company By J.L. STONE

MADE & PRESENTED TO THE Fire Brick & Tile Company By J.L. STONE

According to an article in the March, 2003 issue of The Magazine Antiques, which describes recent acquisitions of the Bayou Bend Collection, Stone “came to Texas from Illinois and worked at a number of potteries in Limestone County, Texas, from about 1870 to 1900.” Diving into the federal census and also other period documents has enabled me to flesh out Stone’s life a bit more. Born on May 18, 1850 in Union County, Kentucky (according to a twentieth century passport application and immigration document), Stone was potting in Limestone County, Texas, by the time he was twenty years old–where, according to the 1870 federal census, he was clearly working with an Illinois-born potter named William C. Knox. Did Knox have ties to the Kirkpatrick brothers? Very possibly, but he had apparently left the state of Illinois sometime around 1855– judging by his children’s ages and places of birth–a few years before the accepted founding of Anna Pottery. Knox probably had trained as a potter in Illinois, but then spent some time in Kentucky before taking the helm of his own pottery in Hempstead, Texas (in Austin County, about 60 miles northwest of Houston) where he was working when the census taker made his rounds in 1860. About ten years later, Knox had moved about 100 miles up the road to Limestone County–probably in or near Kosse–and John L. Stone took his wife and baby boy and joined him there.

By ten years later, in 1880, John L. Stone was one of about seventeen potters or pottery workers operating in Kosse, and John Knox had turned, at least primarily, to farming. Although there was apparently one major pottery in the town at which the potters worked–Stone one of them–the census does not explicitly state who owned it. Turning to the Stone’s jug, then, which remains as a document of its own (albeit one made out of clay) we can use the census to try to interpret the pottery situation in Kosse during the time period.

J.P. Johnson & J.W. Dillon / MANUFACTURERS/ OF / ALL KINDS OF / STONEWARE / Kosse Texas

J.P. Johnson & J.W. Dillon / MANUFACTURERS/ OF / ALL KINDS OF / STONEWARE / Kosse Texas

According to the 1880 census, J.W. Dillon was a merchant who apparently also owned hotel, which his wife kept. He was born circa 1842 in Georgia to immigrants from Great Britain. J.P. Johnson, on the other hand, was listed as a “Brick Mason,” born circa 1840 in Virginia. Based on the records I have access to, it seems very probable that sometime around 1880, Dillon and Johnson struck up a partnersh1ip and began manufacturing stoneware in Kosse; they probably also owned the Fire Brick & Tile Company, which seems to have been run, however, as a separate concern. Three potters, another pottery worker, and one brickyard worker were all residents of Dillon’s hotel in 1880.

Fleshing out the meaning behind the jug’s inscriptions further, the name “Timse” likely refers to a member of one of the Tims families, one a family of free blacks, who lived in the area. At least three free African-Americans were employed at the pottery in 1880, and it seems one of the Tims’s worked in the brick and tile company.J. Cole: 4 Your Eyez Only streaming

John L. Stone. Probably taken sometime circa 1890.

John L. Stone. Probably taken sometime circa 1890.

By 1892, Stone moved to Washington state, where he was probably working at some as-yet-unknown pottery, but returned to Texas, probably initially Limestone County, by the early 1900’s. In 1910 he was working at the Athens Pottery Co. in Athens, Henderson County, Texas, about 100 miles northwest of Kosse. Along the way, he had at least 11 children with two different wives. Sometime after 1910, as Stone ventured into his 60’s, he divorced his wife and moved back to Washington, moving on to Los Angeles, California, by 1923. It was in that year that he, citing a desire to travel to Central America, applied for a U.S. Passport. The passport document contains very interesting information on Stone: his exact birth date and county of birth; his father’s name; his occupation (“Potter”); his physical description; his address in L.A. It also includes a photograph of Stone as an older man–another photograph of John L. Stone as a younger man also exists.

But the most fascinating part of the document is a notarized statement attached to verify Stone’s claims about himself, and brings us back to one of my prime motivations in researching Stone’s life. It reads,

Personally came before me a Notary Public in and for said County and State aforesaid, C.E. Kirkpatrick, whom I know to be entitled to credit, and being duly sworn, on his oath deposes and says that his Post Office address is Anna, Union County Illinois age 71 years, and says that he is an … American Citizen a resident of Union County, that he has known John L. Stone as an American Citizen for Sixty years, and from what I know, and have heard he was born in Union County State of Kentucky on the 18th day of May 1850. That said information he has obtained from intimate association with John L. Stone and associates during said time that John L. Stone is known and has been known during said term among his associates as an American citizen.

Cornie Kirkpatrick's notarized statement for John L. Stone's passport application.

Cornie Kirkpatrick's notarized statement for John L. Stone's passport application.

C.E. Kirkpatrick is none other than Cornwall E. “Cornie” Kirkpatrick, son of Cornwall Kirkpatrick, nephew of Wallace. Cornie’s statement provides a unique window into the interpersonal relationships of American stoneware potters in the nineteenth century. Incisive research into American stoneware paints a dim picture of a widespread network of potters and shops that, while financial competitors, often enjoyed strong bonds of friendship and cooperation, where potters worked at each other’s shops, and sometimes established relationships with many different manufactories in disparate places throughout their lifetimes. But this document reveals much not only about Stone’s development as a potter, but about a friendship that was probably a very common one amongst nineteenth century stoneware potters and artisans in general who shared a kinship based on their specialized knowledge of complicated crafts.

John L. Stone in his early seventies.

John L. Stone in his early seventies.

Cornie Kirkpatrick was born circa 1852, making him about two years younger than John L. Stone. While still a young boy, his father and uncle founded Anna Pottery in Anna, Illinois. Stone was born in Union County, Kentucky, less than 100 miles east of Anna. Kirkpatrick said he had known Stone for sixty years, establishing that Stone had arrived in Anna sometime circa 1863, when he was thirteen years old. The evidence suggests that Stone’s family moved to Anna around 1863 and that Stone apprenticed at Anna Pottery, learning the trade of potter that he would carry with him throughout his life, and became lifelong friends with Kirkpatrick in the process. Sometime in 1869 or early 1870, Stone left Illinois, possibly directly from his employ at the Kirkpatricks’ pottery, and went down to Texas, perhaps with the ultimate goal of striking out on his own. He met up there with another Illinois potter, William C. Knox, who was probably also associated with the Kirkpatricks in some way. Stone’s snake jug is closely modeled after similar jugs made at Anna Pottery, with men’s bodies forced through the jug in the same way; Stone seems to have literally grown up around such vessels and probably made them there, himself.

According to genealogist family members of Stone, John L. Stone died in 1928 in Limestone County, Texas. Unlike some potters who seem content to have produced mostly utilitarian ware and remain anonymous parts of larger potteries, Stone seems to have been essentially concerned with producing true art works that he signed, fired, then consigned to posterity. In this case, something he made about 130 years ago has helped us further uncloud our window into that time and into the artistic legacy of the Anna Pottery school of stoneware potters.

Author’s Note: The work of genealogists was invaluable in researching Stone’s life and discovering what I think is one of the most interesting documents I have ever come across while studying American stoneware. If you happen upon this blog because you also have information on John L. Stone or his family, please send me a reply or otherwise contact us. I would be more than happy to pass genealogical info along to these researchers.





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Anna Pottery in Antique Week

Sold in our July 2004 auction, this exceptional Anna Pottery pig bottle realized $23,100--a world auction record for the form.
Sold in our July 2004 auction, this exceptional Anna Pottery pig bottle realized $23,100--a world auction record for the form.

Growing up, I remember reading about Anna pottery in antiques books and was always fascinated by the stuff. A large snake jug I saw in an art magazine particularly made an impression on me. The jug was made of blue-decorated stoneware, something my family had been selling at antique shows for years, and yet the object seemed like something altogether different. The level of sophistication of the jug was unlike most of the stoneware we had sold, or seen for that matter. It was imbued with a sense of motion and seemed alive as several hand-modeled snakes slithered across its surface and formed its handle. A horrified man ‘s head and limbs protruded through the walls of the jug, his body trapped inside. If one of these objects was discovered from a different pottery, it would be hailed as a potter’s single greatest masterpiece. What is amazing is that two brothers, Wallace and Cornwall Kirkpatrick, who owned and operated Anna Pottery in Anna, IL, from 1859 to 1896, produced a large number of these extraordinary items. The intricate detail evident in their snake jugs and other highly decorated stoneware pieces makes one wonder, “When did they find the time to make standard utilitarian pots?”

A world record for an Anna Pottery 'Shoo Fly' jug, this piece sold for $21,850 in our May 2007 auction.
A world record for an Anna Pottery 'Shoo Fly' jug, this piece sold for $21,850 in our May 2007 auction.

The cover story of the April 24th issue of Antique Week, entitled “Anna Pottery Full of Imagination,” focuses on the Kirkpatricks and their various products. Since setting a record for an Anna pig bottle back in 2004, we have been fortunate enough to handle several fine examples of the brothers’ pottery, and were contacted by Antique Week for their article. My father, Anthony Zipp, was interviewed and some of the pieces we have sold through our auction,  Crocker Farm, are pictured. This article discusses the personal lives and interests of the Kirkpatricks and offers insight into how these influenced their work. Numerous Anna pottery forms are discussed and opinions on the current market are presented. The article is both a visually-appealing and informative read. You can read an online version of the article here.

This excellent example of an Anna Pottery snake jug brought $21,275 in our November 2008 auction.
This excellent example of an Anna Pottery snake jug brought $21,275 in our November 2008 auction.

Anna Pottery has been steadily on the rise in value over the past several years. It remains highly desirable today for a few important reasons. To begin with, it is rare enough to keep serious collectors seeking it and the value high. Secondly, and most importantly, it is pleasing to the eye. In the antiques world in general,  collectors love figural forms. In Anna pottery, human and animal shapes abound. There are pig bottles, frog inkwells, applied dung beetles and salamanders, male and female figures, and  snakes of all sizes. Many such objects and vessles are incised with whimsical and humorous phrases, related to the Temperance Movement or local politics. The all-too-well-known pig bottle, which features a drinking spout at the pig’s rear, is often painstakingly incised with a map of the Midwest. The highly decorative nature of these objects have made them quite popular in folk art circles, of which stoneware may make up only a small percentage. Examples can be found in notable collections across the country, including the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum in Williamsburg, VA, and the American Folk Art Museum in Manhattan. Similar to Shenandoah pottery, Moravian redware, and Pennsylvania-German sgraffitoware, Anna pottery has managed to cross the boundary of limited, regional interest.

Finally, Anna pottery makes a statement and a lasting impression on us. It will turn heads and draw attention even from people who have little interest in antiques or ceramics. When I’ve told my late 20’s friends (who know nothing about antiques) about selling an Anna pig bottle with a hole in its rear, it initiates some sort of response, a chuckle or look of disgust, and suddenly they’re interested. (I can also remember a New England folk art dealer’s look of surprise when he saw the underside of an Anna shoo fly jug a few years back during our auction preview.) It is a testament to the ingenuity of the Kirkpatrick brothers that their cleverly-crafted pieces still elicit a response in us over a hundred years later. And it is the pieces that make the biggest impression on us that we remember the best, love the best, and are truly worth collecting.



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