This week the American decorative arts community lost one of its most important figures when Don Carpentier passed away after battling ALS for three years. I met Don last year and although I only knew him a short time, he quickly became my friend and someone with whom I frequently conversed about a new-found passion of his–the work of the Bissett family of stoneware potters in Old Bridge, New Jersey. For those unfamiliar with Don, his accomplishments in the fields of decorative arts, early American material culture, and historic preservation were absolutely staggering. Beginning at the age of fourteen, he began moving historic buildings to his parents’ property in East Nassau, New York–a project that would coalesce into Eastfield Village, a group of period buildings that serve as a campus for lectures and programs on historic preservation and material culture. (Martha Stewart once featured Eastfield on her television show, and you can watch that video here.)I first met Don over email in the spring of 2013 and in person at Eastfield in June of that year, where I was speaking as part of the annual ceramics symposium held there–commonly referred to as “Dish Camp.” In the lead-up to the event, Don and I conversed over email and he asked me if I knew anything about the Bissett family of potters, because he was a descendant of Asher Bissett–a stoneware potter who had more or less fallen through the cracks of history and whom relatively few stoneware collectors had ever heard of. Don also told me that he was descended from Xerxes Price, a more famous stoneware potter who worked in Sayreville, NJ. By serendipity a person on Eastfield’s mailing list lived on the old Bissett homestead in Old Bridge and had discovered tons of wasters and kiln furniture on the property; she contacted Don when she saw he was going to present on Bissett at Dish Camp. Don was given some of this kiln refuse and was allowed to dig a well on the property that housed most of this material; he was very excited at the prospect of finding whole, extant examples of the Bissetts’ work (which he eventually did–lots of them). He was also anxious to locate shards that had been excavated by a well known early researcher of New Jersey stoneware named Robert Sim (as well as a young friend of his, James Brown) around the middle of the 20th century; I gave him some advice on where I believed Sim’s shards were but I had no idea that Don would do anything more with them than flesh out an obscure pottery whose work few collected or talked about. Many of you reading this have either attended Dish Camp or know someone who has, but it is basically a great weekend spent amongst historic buildings, doing nothing but talking about ceramics. The lectures are held in the 1836 Universalist Church that Don moved to Eastfield in the early 1980′s, and attendees are encouraged to bring ceramics along with them and display them on the huge tables that run across the floor of the church, where the pews would be. The Friday I arrived I met Don and he was excited to show me what he had been working on. On a table at the back of the room I was blown away to see an almost exact replica of Xerxes Price’s famous man-in-the-moon stamp, fashioned out of tin. A master tinsmith, Don had whipped it together earlier that week and had rolled out a piece of clay to show it off. He also had a large amount of Bissett kiln refuse and could not wait to tell me about the mistakes he was finding in the established history of Old Bridge stoneware, and how his ancestors he felt had been more or less written out of that history.
Don’s presentation at Dish Camp included an anecdote about the first piece of pottery he ever made, as a boy–an ashtray that was fashioned to look like a fireplace, so when you put your cigarette inside, smoke poured out of the chimney. Since Don, in his adult life, had become nothing less than the preeminent maker of reproduction British diptwares, he seemed pretty convinced that something deep inside of him, which came down from his ancestors, had (perhaps unstoppably) compelled him to work with clay. If you aren’t familiar with Don’s mochaware, you should check it out. I remember the day he nonchalantly mentioned that he had made all the shell- and feather-edge pottery in the Russell Crowe movie, Master and Commander, and had also created primitive metal ware for Noah.After Dish Camp, Don and I kept in touch as he forged ahead with his quest to see the story of his ancestors properly told, and their work brought forth into the light of day. Constantly he sought out photographs and documents that could help him put the pieces of the puzzle together. In October he published “The Morgan/Van Wickle Pottery: A Case of Mistaken Identity” in Maine Antique Digest, and I think he got a kick out of the controversy he had caused, as he accused Robert Sim of sweeping his ancestors’ work under the rug. Don believed that Sim had been obsessed with finding the work of the more high-profile Old Bridge pottery concern of James Morgan, Jr. and Jacob Van Wickle, and as such was sloppy in assessing what he was actually excavating–eventually pronouncing many products of Don’s ancestors as “Morgan/Van Wickle” and not “Bissett.” When Don wrote his article, he believed that Sim and Brown had never found any significant kiln refuse from that Morgan operation, and reading what Sim actually published on the matter, it was a good conclusion; later, after digging into the personal letters that Sim and Brown exchanged during the time period, he determined that some Morgan wasters were, in fact, found after Sim’s publication by a high school student poking around near a ball field distant from the Bissett pottery site. Unfortunately although shards from both the Bissett and Morgan sites were procured by Sim, ambiguous and sometimes incorrect labels make evaluating them very difficult.
Don’s work has laid the groundwork for further intensive studies on Old Bridge–and by extension, New Jersey–stoneware. Over the months he accumulated hundreds of images that he collated in binder form and would lay out digitally with accompanying text in order to preserve his findings and ideas. Ever critical of how previous researchers had handled their shards, Don marked each of his meticulously with a Sharpie; I will never forget sitting with him at a Wegman’s in New Jersey earlier this year as he carried boxes of shards into the restaurant area for me to look at. Coming from a background as a highly-respected historian of refined English ceramics, a potter himself, and a craftsman of several different early American handicrafts, Don brought an eye to the study of American stoneware that I had honestly never seen before. In particular his ability to determine what tools were used to produce a particular pot and to use the slightest nuances in tools employed to assist in attributions was a real eye-opener for me. Noting that an essentially identical stamped four hearts motif was used at three different potteries operating in the first quarter of the 19th century, Don procured images of all three and by using transparencies was able to determine the dings and other nuances that separated one from the other.
Don was a true encouragement to me in my own research pursuits and I was immediately struck by his kindness, sense of humor and giving mentality as he went about trying to answer questions about his own ceramic ancestry. In reading the tributes that have been pouring out on the internet over the last couple of days, I can see that he impacted so many people’s lives in the way he did mine. I think the least I owe Don is a tribute to him and the work he did in this last year to correct the history of New Jersey stoneware–and to help in whatever way I can to make sure his research sticks around and is built upon to the end he was looking toward. Rest in Peace, Don. I will miss you!
If you’ve gone through our November 2, 2013 Stoneware & Redware Auction catalog, you might have seen a couple of references to museum pieces and how they relate to two examples of early Manhattan stoneware we are offering this time around:An outstanding Thomas Commeraw jar from his early period of production (during which he was incising his work with elaborate designs as opposed to his later stamped decorations) is closely related to an example currently in the collection of the Smithsonian. You can view that Smithsonian example by clicking here. I was, needless to say, very happy to receive this for our Fall sale, and that particular group of Commeraw’s stoneware (bearing, I might add, one of the earliest documented maker’s marks ever employed on American stoneware) is perhaps my absolute favorite of all American pottery. An important New York City jug belongs to a group of stoneware by a mysterious maker, responsible for what is considered one of the very greatest examples of American stoneware, the “Elizabeth Crane” punch bowl currently on display at the Met (part of the collection of American Folk Art Museum). You can view that punchbowl here. The interior features a great incised and cobalt-highlight fish, and if you own Georgianna Greer’s American Stonewares, you can see a photo of the fish there. This bowl has been attributed to the shop of John Crolius, Jr. If you don’t know much about early Manhattan stoneware, some of the following may be a little “inside baseball,” but if you are interested in this sort of thing, feel free to read on:
John Crolius, Jr. was the older brother of who may be the most famous American stoneware potter of all, Clarkson Crolius. Clarkson would eventually take over his father’s shop, which was apparently the very same pottery established by his grandfather, William Crolius [the 1st], who had emigrated from Germany circa 1720. During the Revolutionary period, John, Jr. would inherit the shop of his uncle, William Crolius [the 2nd], which was basically located down the block from his father’s / Clarkson’s shop. John, Jr.’s manufactory operated for many years (and this is not an indictment at all of whoever performed that initial attribution of the punch bowl decades ago; he or she could be correct) but there is a problem with that attribution–there are no signed extant examples from John Jr.’s shop to use as a basis for an attribution. There is a larger body of work known for the maker of the punchbowl and the jug, and determining who that maker was is of extreme interest to me. Hopefully we are able to get to the bottom of it before too long!
Anyway, I just thought it would be fun to share links to the museum pieces we referenced in the catalog, and put these two examples of Manhattan stoneware into a better context.
Hadrosaurus was an herbivorous duck-billed dinosaur. By the late 1860′s, Foulke’s skeleton had been properly mounted and put on display in Philadelphia; at least one late nineteenth century rendering of the creature shows–like the mounted skeleton–a bipedal dinosaur with long tail and front limbs smaller than the hind ones.About thirty years after Foulke’s discovery, roughly sixty miles north of Haddonfield, the potters of Fulper Brothers’ Flemington stoneware manufactory were also playing around in the mud–this time creating the only example of American stoneware we have ever seen bearing the image of a dinosaur. But what is remarkable to me–besides the striking, unique image emblazoned across the front of the vessel–is how close that image is to Foulke’s Hadrosaurus, bearing the same physical attributes I just described in the previous paragraph. It seems pretty apparent that this pot created in New Jersey is intentionally decorated with the image of the famous dinosaur likewise pulled out of New Jersey mud a few decades before. Indeed, New Jerseyans still take pride in their Hadrosaurus–in 1991, it became their official state dinosaur.
We are very happy to include, as part of our November 2, 2013 stoneware & redware auction, this amazing example–one in which New Jersey (and American) history and prehistory meet in a remarkable way.
On Sunday, April 14, at 2:30pm, Luke and I will be giving a new talk, Excellent Ware: The Harrisburg Stoneware Potters and Their Contemporaries, at the Historical Society of Dauphin County in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Afterwards we will be holding an appraisal event, during which we will evaluate attendees’ stoneware and redware. Admission is by donation at the door, but is free to members. The HSDC will also be charging a small fee for appraisals to help support their important organization. For more information, please visit the HSDC website, or call 717-233-3462.
On Saturday, April 27, at 2pm, Mark and I will again be delivering our lecture, Manhattan Stoneware, 1795-1820, as a special program during the Westchester Glass Show in Old Greenwich, Connecticut (at the Greenwich Civic Center). A well-respected event, the Westchester Glass Show is for the very first time encouraging exhibitors to offer ceramics for sale, as well, so this should be a fun time for stoneware collectors. Our talk will be essentially the same one we gave at the Gunn Memorial Library and Museum back in October, so if you missed that event, this is an opportunity to get an incisive look at the big three Manhattan stoneware makers–Clarkson Crolius, John Remmey III and Thomas Commeraw–as well as the former Manhattan potter who completely revolutionized Mid-Atlantic stoneware production–Henry Remmey, Sr. Our talk is free with admission to the show ($7). Here’s a link to a show circular with the important details.
We have really enjoyed sharing our love of this great American art form with you, and look forward to doing so many times this year!
It may go without saying that Thomas Commeraw is my favorite potter, and I count some of my discoveries about his life–including the day I figured out he was a free black man–as high points of my research life. As far as Dave is concerned, I remember well the day my family and I went to Winterthur for their Dave exhibit back in 2000, and I was bowled over by the massive vessels and, particularly, the couplets. I being a writing major at JHU–and one particularly interested in formal poetry–the synthesis of pottery and poetry in these objects crafted by an enslaved human being really did speak to me.The number of African Americans–whether free or enslaved–actually throwing and decorating salt-glazed stoneware during Commeraw’s day (and beyond, for that matter) was apparently a pretty low one. I have seen it claimed that a hidden workforce of enslaved potters was responsible for huge numbers of the vessels that have come down to us, but based on any serious study of the American stoneware industry, this was quite clearly not the case. While free blacks and, where applicable, slaves were certainly employed in many shops, it seems these people were most often performing more menial tasks involved with running a pottery: general odd jobs around the shop, disposing of waste, transporting ware, handling clay, making bricks, or any number of tasks that did not require the intense skill of wheel throwing attained only through long-term training. Commeraw is remarkable in many ways, but purely as an American stoneware potter, he was a true master whom we are able to document as an African American–and one who left behind a huge body of work.
Dave, of course, was not making blue-decorated, salt-glazed stoneware, but was instead working in alkaline glazes in the Southern American tradition. While in the Edgefield District Dave lived under a true slave society–a place where an enslaved workforce was the order of things–he was likewise set apart as a true master of his craft, and one whose work was extremely deft–to be celebrated apart from his extraordinary life story.These were two very different men, in terms of freedom status, socio-economic status, level of education, and living environment. Their chosen mediums, through which their names were literally forever set in stone, have elevated both to a level of recognition never to be achieved by thousands of others whose work was destined from the outset to decay–or whose products were deemed unworthy of a signature. But it was not this good fortune alone by which we know their names today–it was their vast skill, as well as their ability to persevere and–to the extent possible–break through the strictures of a society that had stacked the deck against them. Deft on the wheel and a gifted businessman, Thomas Commeraw went from an impoverished young man in New York’s slave society to a businessman known throughout the entire country, in direct competition with prominent whites like Clarkson Crolius. Living under a brutal slave system, Dave found his way to literacy and leveraged what was clearly a God-given talent to literally make his mark on the history of American material culture; in a place where reading and writing were not the norm for someone like Dave, he managed to throw beautiful pots and inscribe them with songs that transcended his circumstances.
This is what I find most remarkable about people like Commeraw and Dave. They both happened to share the same skin color, but perseverance and dignity under incredibly difficult circumstances are character traits human beings the world over–regardless of ethnicity or background–can realize in their own lives. The names “Commeraw” and “Dave,” stamped and carved into stoneware clay a very long time ago, are persistent, permanent reminders of this.
Inferior to None: The Remmeys, First Family of American Stoneware
This will be the first true comprehensive look at the most important family in the history of American stoneware production–beginning in eighteenth-century Manhattan and ending in twentieth-century Philadelphia. This titanic family tree of stoneware potters includes the John Remmeys of New York City; Henry Remmey in Baltimore; Henry Remmey, Jr. in Philadelphia; Enoch Burnett (son-in-law of Henry Remmey) in Washington, D.C.; and Richard C. Remmey in Philadelphia–and we will discuss all of these potters and others in what we hope will be an interesting presentation.
You do not need to register to attend the lecture. Our auction preview opens at 1pm on Friday, March 1, and we will begin the presentation at 2pm in our main gallery space. If you have any questions, etc, please feel free to contact us. We are all looking forward to what we hope will be an exciting weekend of American stoneware!
Levi Mitchell Boyer was born November 17, 1842 in Ashland Township (Clarion County) in northwestern Pennsylvania. At the young age of 18, following the outbreak of the Civil War, he volunteered for service in the 78th Pennsylvania Infantry and began a tour of duty in the South, during which he saw much action–including at the important Battles of Stone River, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge. At the end of May, 1864, he was wounded at the Battle of New Hope Church, Georgia, and received his discharge along with other seasoned veterans of the 78th in November of that year.Lucky to have survived his three years’ worth of fighting, Boyer entered the ministry, married his wife, Mary, and by 1870 was living in Burnside, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania–not far from Punxsutawney. By 1880, the couple, along with their children, had moved to Somerset, just down the road from Johnstown, and we initially believed that it was here that Boyer resided when the Swank pottery made him his bank. However, I have since learned that Boyer did, indeed, pastor the First Evangelical Church of Johnstown from around the early to late 1870′s, and it was clearly during his tenure there that the local pottery bestowed him with a gift. What “710″ means, as inscribed alongside his name, is a mystery, but probably refers to something church-related.
Boyer held many high-level positions within the Evangelical Church throughout his life, both in western Pennsylvania and Ohio, where he would eventually settle. He seems to have moved around a lot during his tour of Christian duty in Pennsylvania, but would move to Canton, Ohio, in the early 1890′s, basically residing there until his death on November 18, 1931, at the age of 89.
It is unusual that we are able to gather this much information about a name we find inscribed on a piece of stoneware, and I think it is safe to say that Reverend Boyer’s bank is one of the more important examples of Johnstown pottery to surface in some time.
A Note about Sources: While I used various sources for this brief article, I would particularly like to credit this very helpful entry on findagrave.com.